One author’s misconduct can have profound effects on the research community. The eight researchers with the highest individual retraction counts in the scientific literature—many of them for misconduct—have together coauthored problematic papers with more than 320 other researchers (circles, sized by retraction count and colored by continent of primary affiliation). The number of retraction-producing collaborations (black lines) between any two researchers varies, but in several cases, researchers produce multiple problematic papers with the same individuals or groups, leading to highly interconnected clusters of scientists linked by their retraction history.


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